Effective communication for managers can be highlighted for one simple reason: THE ENTIRE ACTIVITY OF A MANAGER DEPENDS ON COMMUNICATION.
Not some things, but everything. Managers cannot formulate strategies and make decisions without information. All information must be communicated. Once the decision is made, re-communication should be carried out. Otherwise, no one will know about the decision. Even the best idea, the most creative analysis or the most perfect plan cannot be formed without communication. Therefore, managers must have effective communication skills. We are not saying that only having effective communication skills can make a successful manager. But we can say that ineffective communication skills can create multiple and persistent problems for a manager.
Communication can be seen as a process or flow.
Communication problems arise when things are not going well in the organization when there are operational difficulties, or when strategic goals are not being met. Before communication can take place, a purpose expressed as a message is needed. A message is transmitted between a source (sender) and a receiver. This message is symbolically represented and transmitted to the receiver through a certain channel. The receiver interprets the message transmitted by the sender. As a result, the communication process takes place.
The picture below shows the communication process. This model has 7 parts:
1. Message; 2. The source or sender of the communication; 3. Coding; 4. Canal; 5. Open the code; 6. Receiver; 7. Evaluation.
1 and 2. The sender transmits the sender’s idea by coding. The coded message is influenced by four conditions: skill, attitude, knowledge and socio-cultural system. Our communication with you on this site copywriting skills depends onIf we don’t have the proper writing skills, then our post will not reach you in the desired way. A person’s success in communication depends on his speaking, reading, listening and reasoning skills.
Our attitudes affect our behaviour. We have preconceived ideas about many topics, and our communication depends on these approaches. In addition, our communication performance depends on our level of knowledge of the subject. We cannot talk about what we do not know. If our knowledge is too broad, then the recipient may not fully understand our message. Obviously, the knowledge that the source has will affect the message he transfers. Finally, just as our attitudes affect our behaviour, so does our position in the socio-cultural system. Your beliefs and values—all parts of your culture—affect you as a source of communication.
3. A message is an actual, physical product from a source and has a specific purpose. When we speak, our words are our message. When we write, our writing is a message. When you take a picture, the picture is the message. When we make certain gestures, the movement of our hands and the expressions on our faces are our messages. Our message depends on a group of symbols and a code to transfer meaning, the content of the message, and the decisions we make to select both codes and content.
4. Channel is the medium through which the message moves. It is selected by source. The source determines whether an official or unofficial channel should be used. Official channels are created by the organization and are intended to transmit the work-related activities of the organization’s members. They traditionally move through the hierarchical network within the organization. Other messages of a personal or social nature are transmitted through informal channels of the organization.
5 and 6. The receiver is the person to whom the message is directed. Before a message can be received, the symbols contained in it must be converted into a form that the receiver can understand – the message must be decoded. Coding is limited by the socio-cultural system, knowledge, skills and approaches and is equally accessible to the recipient. Therefore, the writing and ability of the source must be very high. At the same time, the receiver’s reading and listening abilities should be commensurate with the source’s abilities. Just as a person’s ability, attitude, and cultural background affect their ability to receive, so do their ability to convey a message.
7. The final point of the communication process is evaluation. If the source of the communication decodes the message it encoded, and if the message is placed back into its system, then we get an estimate. The evaluation examines how successful we are in conveying our intended message. It determines how much is understood. Given the cultural differences in today’s workforce, the importance of effective assessment is critical in assessing communication.
Is written communication more effective than verbal communication?
Written communication includes letters, e-mails, notes, other forms of electronic communication, periodic organizational publications, bulletins, other written words, symbols and tools. Why does the sender use write communication?
Advantages. They are more visible, permanent and grounded than verbal communication. That is, both the sender and the receiver have a written record of the communication, and the message can be stored for an indefinite period of time. If questions arise about the content of the post, it is available for review at a later time. This quality is important during long and complex communication. For example, a marketing plan for a new product is a plan that includes multiple tasks spanning several months. Those who will implement this plan will be able to review the document repeatedly during the plan period by writing it down. The final benefit of written communication comes from the process itself. Written communications are more thoughtful, logical and clear. Except in some situations, such as a formal speech, written words are taken more seriously than spoken words. Writing information down forces a person to think more deeply about what they want to say.
Disadvantages. Of course, texting has its downsides. Written may be more accurate, but it is time-consuming. You can convey more information to your university professor during an hour-long oral exam than during a written exam. In fact, writing a 10-15 minute piece of information can take you an hour. Another disadvantage is the lack of evaluation. Verbal communication allows the receiver to respond quickly to information once it has been received. However, there is no automatic evaluation process for written communication. Sending a note does not guarantee that it will still be received; there is no guarantee that even the sender will understand. The last issue is related to verbal communication. Receivers may often ask for an overview of what you said. If an accurate overview is given, it means that the message has been received and understood.
Is gossip an effective communication method?
Gossip is an informal means of communication in an organization. It is neither created nor supported by an organization. Despite this, information of a gossip nature spreads by word of mouth. The irony of the situation is that in the gossip system, bad information spreads faster than good. Members of the organization can get information as soon as possible through gossip.
The biggest question about gossip is whether it is accurate. Research on this topic has shown mixed results. Gossip can be accurate in organizations distinguished by their open-mindedness and democratic environment. In authoritarian cultures, however, gossip will often be inaccurate. Even if the information in the gossip is inaccurate, it contains some truth. Rumours of large-scale layoffs, plant closings, and other topics may contain inaccurate information (such as about who will be affected).
How do non-verbal tools affect communication?
Communications with multiple meanings are neither spoken nor written. They are non-verbal communications. A siren or a red light tells you something, if not in words. Students don’t need words to understand a teacher. When the paper rustles and the notebooks are closed, the message is clear – the lesson is over.
The size of a person’s office, desk, and even clothing can be a message to others, but the most recognizable areas of nonverbal communication are body language and intonation.
Body language is body gestures, facial expressions and other body movements. For example, pouting has a very different meaning than smiling. Hand movements, facial expressions and other gestures can reflect aggression, fear, shyness, complacency, joy and anger.
It’s not what you say, but how you say it
. Intonation is very important in communication. Many of you probably did not know this. This topic is reflected in proverbs in oral folk literature, poems and novels in written literature. We have come across a lot of proverbs like “Ho var dağar lar, ho var dağar dar al-tağan”. We know how important intonation is in communication. However, if we are talking about communication, we must also touch on the topic of intonation.
Intonation is a person’s emphasis on words and phrases. To illustrate how intonation changes the meaning of a message, consider a question a student asks his teacher. The teacher answers the question: “What do you mean by that?” The student’s response will vary depending on the tone of the teacher’s response. A soft, flowing tone conveys a different meaning than an oppressive intonation that emphasizes the last word. We will assume that the first intonation comes from someone sincerely seeking clarification, while the second indicates that the person is aggressive and trying to defend himself. As they say, “it’s not what you say, but how you say it” that managers should keep in mind when communicating.
It is also a fact that every verbal communication is a non-verbal message. Why? Because the non-verbal component has a great influence. Studies show that 65-90 per cent of a message is conveyed through body language during a face-to-face conversation. If there is a mismatch between the spoken words and the body language, the receivers will perceive the body language as having a more authentic meaning.
What are the main obstacles to effective communication?
Due to many interpersonal barriers, the message encoded by the sender is interpreted differently by the receiver. We have described the main obstacles to effective communication in the table below.
|Filtering||is the deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more attractive to the receiver.|
|Selective comprehension is||of information according to one’s own needs, motivation, experience, background, and other personal qualities.|
|Information overload||is when the amount of information a person has to process exceeds his processing capacity.|
|Emotions||are what the receiver feels when receiving the message.|
|Language||Words mean different things to different people. Receivers rely on their own explanatory methods when communicating.|
|Gender||Women and men may have different communication responses and different communication styles.|
|National culture||There are differences between different languages that people use to communicate, and national culture is part of that.|
HOW DOES FILTERING AFFECT COMMUNICATION?
Filtering is when a sender manipulates information to make it appear more palatable to the receiver. For example, a manager gives his boss the information he wants to hear. That is, it filters information. Make sure it does. As information moves from the bottom up, it is modified by lower levels so that top management is not overloaded with information. Those who filter such information make it according to their personal interests and their worldview.
The extent of filtering depends on the culture of the organization and the number of vertical levels. More vertical levels mean more filtering. Information filtering is becoming less of a problem as modern organizations follow less rigid hierarchies and more collaborative divisions of work. In addition, the use of e-mails as a means of communication also reduces filtering, since information is sent directly to the top without intermediate levels. Finally, organizational culture may or may not encourage filtering through the actions it rewards. The more style and image that organizational rewards emphasize, the more information managers will filter to their advantage.
HOW DOES SELECTIVE COMPREHENSION AFFECT COMMUNICATION?
The second obstacle in communication is selective understanding. In the process of communication, information recipients see and hear information according to their needs, motivation and experience, background and personal characteristics. Recipients of information also present their interests and expectations to communication while decoding information.
For example, according to the conclusion of a specialist working in the human resources department, women are ready to sacrifice family life for careers. They prioritize family over career. That specialist considers this during an interview with a female candidate who has applied for a vacancy in the organization. Even if a female candidate doesn’t show that she prioritizes family over career, she will “see” it or seem to see it. We do not see reality, we explain what we see and call it a reality.
HOW DOES INFORMATION LOAD AFFECT COMMUNICATION?
Humans have a certain capacity to process information. For example, consider an international sales expert arriving at work to find more than 600 emails waiting for him. It is impossible to fully read and respond to each of these messages without downloading the information. Modern workers constantly complain about information overload. E-mails, phone calls, faxes, meetings, and professional reading materials create so much information overload that it is impossible to learn and comprehend them all. What if you have more information than you can analyze? You will probably choose, ignore and forget some information, or put it aside to look at again until the download is complete. In each case, the result is lost information and poor communication.
HOW DO EMOTIONS AFFECT COMMUNICATION?
How does the recipient of information feel when it affects their understanding? Often when you receive information, you will interpret the same information differently depending on your mood. Extreme emotions have a negative impact on effective communication. In such cases, we often forget the rational and objective thinking process and make emotional judgments. The best advice here is to not reply to a message when you’re not in the mood. Because when your mood changes, you will think differently.
HOW DOES LANGUAGE AFFECT COMMUNICATION?
Words mean different things to different people. “The meaning of words is not in words, but in us.” Age, education, and cultural background are the three main qualities that influence our language, and people assign meanings to words that correspond to them. Both columnist Aynur Jamalgiziand rapper Paster (Parviz Guluzadeh) speak Azerbaijani. However, the language they use is different.
Different communication styles exist in organizations whose employees come from different cultures. Additionally, grouping employees across departments allows them to create jargon or technical language. In large organizations, members are often very geographically dispersed. They even work in different countries, and people working in each area use expressions appropriate to that area.
The presence of vertical levels can also cause language problems. The language of managers can seem mystical to normal employees because they are not familiar with management jargon. Remember that even though we speak the same language, our use of language is different. Such understanding, of course, creates barriers to communication. Knowing how to use language reduces such barriers.
HOW DOES SEXUALITY AFFECT COMMUNICATION?
In all organizations, the lack of effective communication between genders has a significant impact on organizational goals. But how do we manage the various differences between communication styles? To avoid gender differences from being a barrier to effective communication, people need to communicate, accept and understand each other adaptively. Both women and men should understand the differences in communication styles, not compare them as good or bad, and try to talk to each other successfully.
HOW DOES NATIONAL CULTURE AFFECT COMMUNICATION?
Finally, communication differences may arise from the different languages people use; it is part of the national culture. For example, let’s compare countries that place a high value on individualism (for example, the United States) with countries that value collectivism (for example, Japan).
In the United States, communication tools are focused on individuals and are clearly expressed. US managers use memorandums, statements, position reports, and other formal forms to express their positions on issues. Supervisors can filter information to make it look good so they can convince employees of the importance of making decisions and plans. Lower-level employees also use this practice for their own safety.
In collectivist countries such as Japan, informal forms of interpersonal contact are more common. Unlike an American manager, a Japanese manager will first discuss the situation extensively verbally with his staff, and then prepare a formal document that reflects the general agreement. The Japanese like decisions made by consensus. Open communication is an integral part of their work environment. Face-to-face communication is also favoured in Japan. Cultural differences influence a manager’s choice of communication method. Undoubtedly, if these differences are not taken into account, there is a barrier to effective communication.
How can managers overcome communication barriers? How can given communication barriers motivate managers to act? The following suggestions may be suitable to make communication more effective.
How to overcome communication barriers effectively?
|Evaluation||Check the accuracy of the communicated information. That is, checking what you hear|
|language||Using words that the audience will understand|
|Active (or empathic) listening Listening||to get the full meaning of the message without making incomplete judgments or thinking about what to say in response|
|Limiting||emotions Feeling the moment when emotions rise. Not communicate until you|
|calm down Watch for non-verbal cues Remember||that your actions speak louder than your words. Keep both in a suitable position.|
Many communication problems are caused by inaccuracies and misunderstandings. If the manager evaluates (whether verbally or non-verbally) such problems are less likely to occur.
The manager can ask questions about the message to assess whether it was received and understood in the desired way. Or the manager may ask the recipient to paraphrase the message. If the manager hears what he means, then understanding and accuracy will increase. Evaluation is also useful in that it indicates the receiver’s response to the manager’s message.
Assessment does not have to be verbal. If the sales manager sends the new monthly sales report via e-mail to all sales representatives and some of them do not fill out the form and return it, then the sales manager has received the evaluation. And the assessment is that the sales manager feels the need for clarification for communication. In addition, managers can use nonverbal tools to check whether others are receiving messages.
WHY USE SIMPLIFIED LANGUAGE?
Since there may be a language barrier, managers should consider the target audience and adapt the language to them. Remember, effective communication is achieved when the message is received and understood. For example, a hospital administrator should always speak in clear, simple, understandable terms and in a manner adapted to different work groups. Posts directed at the surgical staff should be deliberately distinguished from information directed at the marketing team or office staff. Jargon should be used in relation to a group that knows its meaning; however, when used outside of this group, a problem may occur.
WHY SHOULD WE BE ACTIVE (OR EMPATHETIC) LISTENERS?
When someone is talking, we hear, but often we don’t listen. Listening is an active search for meaning, while hearing is passive. During listening, the receiver also tries to communicate.
Most of us are poor listeners. Why? Because it’s hard and most of us like to talk. In fact, listening is more tiring than speaking. Unlike hearing, active listening requires full concentration to avoid making incomplete judgments. The average person speaks at a rate of 125-200 words per minute. But the average listener can understand 400 words in a minute. The difference is that it takes a lot of time and space for the brain.
Active listening increases empathy with the sender, meaning you put yourself in the sender’s shoes. Since the sender’s approach, interests, needs, expectations and empathy are different, it is easier to understand the real content of the post. An empathic listener makes judgments about the content of the message and listens carefully to what is being said. The goal here is to develop the ability to grasp the full meaning without making incomplete judgments or spoiling the information. Other specific behaviours of active listeners include making eye contact, nodding in approval or support, appropriate facial expressions, avoiding distracting movements and gestures, asking questions, conveying content using one’s own words, not interrupting the speaker, not talking too much, and being comfortable between the listener and the speaker. is about being able to build links.
HOW MUCH SHOULD WE LIMIT OUR EMOTIONS?
It would be naïve to think that managers always communicate rationally. We know that emotions can cloud and change communication. A manager who is not happy for some reason will probably misunderstand incoming messages, and the messages he sends will not be clear and precise. What to do? The easiest answer is to calm down and get your emotions under control before communicating.
WHY ARE NONVERBAL KEYS IMPORTANT?
If actions speak louder than words, then you need to ensure that your actions connect and amplify your words. An effective communicator must ensure that nonverbal cues convey the desired message.